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Hydropower Systems

Conventional Dam
Most hydropowers come from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine.
Pumped Storage
This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.
Tidal Flow
Tidal stations make use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water by tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as water wheels.
Run-of-river hydropower stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply must pass unused. A constant supply of water from a lake or existing reservoir upstream is a significant advantage in choosing the sites.

Run-of-River Hydropower System

The growing interest in water management and sustainable environment toward a sustainable world has awoken new sources of hydro energy. Among these are the run-of-river plants to produce electricity using induction generators. Run-of-river hydro plants do not require dams, they are mainly run-of-river with low or no reservoir. They rely on the natural downward flow of the stream to guide water through channels/pipes to a generating station. The force of the water spins a turbine, which drives an electric generator that causes producing electricity. In the run-of-river plants, a portion of the river’s water is diverted to a channel, pipeline, or pressurized pipeline that delivers it to a waterwheel or turbine. The moving water rotates the turbine, which spins a shaft. The motion of the shaft can be used for mechanical processes, such as pumping water or rotating a generator to produce electricity.

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