Hydro-Electric Power

Hydroelectric Generation Methods

Conventional Dam
Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine.
Pumped Storage
This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.
Tidal Power
A tidal power station makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot water wheels.
Run-of-River
Run-of-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that only the water coming from upstream is available for generation at that moment, and any oversupply must pass unused. A constant supply of water from a lake or existing reservoir upstream is a significant advantage in choosing sites for run-of-river.

Run-of-River Hydroelectric Generation

Growing interest in water management and sustainable environment toward a sustain-able world has awoken new sources of hydro energy. Among these are the run-of-river plants to produce electricity using induction generators. Run-of-river hydro plants do not require dams; that is, they are mainly run-of-river with little or no reservoir impoundment.
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